Shrine (National Revolutionary Martyrs' Shrine)
The National Revolutionary Martyrs’ Shrine was built in 1969, to honor the 390,000 people who were killed during the fight for democracy in China. The shrine is made up of the main gate, main building and few smaller buildings on the side. The buildings contain many niches with the martyrs’ names, paying respect to their sacrifice World War II.
Many anti-Qing groups arose during the Qing Dynasty, as they were not happy with how the emperors handled the Opium Wars and foreign relations. They formed many groups, but the most notable one is Tongmenghui, led by Sun Yat-Sen. Together, they carried out the Xinhai Revolution, where they successfully abdicated the six-year-old Emperor Puyi. Then, they started the Guomingdang without trouble, until the Japanese invaded China in 1920.
When the Japanese invaded China during World War II, the idea of communism had already spread throughout China. Communism was very popular due to a large number of poor farmers living in the highlands. However, at this time, communism was still very small. Over time, the idea grew more and more popular, and the Guomindang army grew weaker with every attack on them. Eventually, communism won over, and Guomingdang moved to Taiwan. Now, the People’s Republic of China runs China, while Republic of China rules Taiwan.
Some of the battles that the martyrs were sacrificed in are as follows:
- Establishment of Hsing-Chung-Hui (by Dr. Sun)
As early as November 24, 1894, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, the founding father of the Republic of China, established the Hsing-Chung-Hui (regeneration society) in Honolulu and united more than a score of dedicated revolutionists, including Tang Yin-nan, with the call “to rejuvenate China.” Dr. Sun was unanimously selected as the leader of the Society and prepared to return to the motherland for the uprising, so marked the fresh start of the National Revolutionary campaign.
- The Canton Uprising
Started on March 29, 1911, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen plotted to launch the 10th uprising in Canton. Huang-Hsin led the comrades to assault the viceroy office, but this action failed because the plan was leaked out to the Manchu officials. However, this event touched off a nationwide revolutionary tide. Within a year, the Wuchang uprising overthrew the Manchu monarchy, and the democratic Republic of China was born.
- Battle of Shanghai
After the Marco Polo Bridge incident had broken out on July 1937, Japanese troops continually pushed southward. To cover and distract the Japanese troops from the transport of the seaboard factories and materials to the hinterland and facilitate the prolonged War of Resistance, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek shifted the operations axis from the north towards the south and from the east toward the west. Generalissimo Chiang-Kai-Shek mobilized a strong force to immobilize the enemy’s main body at Shanghai battle area. In more than three months of the bloody fight in Shanghai, the inflicted 60 000-odd casualties on the aggressors. The Chinese armed forces scored the highest level of gallantry.
- Battle of Lung-tan
In late August 1926, the warlord Sun Chuan-fang led his 50 000 odd troops and launched attacks on Wu-lung-shan, Chi-hsia-shan and Lung-tan respectively. The first and seventh Corps of The National Revolutionary Forces fought back with unmatched courage and after three days bloody engagement, the won a complete victory. During this battle, the National Revolutionary Forces captured more than 30 000 enemy troops, and the line of seized rifles stretched for more than ten kilometers along the Yang-tze River. The national capital was thus secured.
- Battle at Ting-Szu-Chiao
On August 20, 1926, the late President Chiang Kai-Shek, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Expeditionary Forces, arrived with his troops at Yueh-chou. On August 29, the order was issued to attack the positions of warlord Wu Pei0fu’s armies around Ting-szu-chiao, but the fierce resistance resulted in a sea-saw battle. After three days-and-nights of furious fighting, the town was ultimately seized. From then on, the National Forces gained their violent reputation and fought forth without rivals.
- Seizure of Hui-Chou
In 1925, the National Government issued attack orders to wipe out the counter-revolutionary forces and secured the safety of the revolution’s base in Canton. THe late President CHiang Kai-shek was appointed as the Commander-in-chief. As 10 a.m. of October 12, the late President Chiang gave the order of siege the Hui-chou city and personally led the troops for a full-scale attack. After 44 hours of fierce fighting, Hui-chou, the “first well-fortified city south of Mt. South”, was captured.
- Uprising in Canton on March 29, 1911